First Pass Yield (FPY)

Learn all about First Pass Yield (FPY), an essential metric for maintenance managers.

(Free) Maintenance Acronyms Guide

What is First Pass Yield (FPY)?

First pass yield or FPY is a metric that helps manufacturers determine the quality of their products. In essence, it is the number of useable or sellable products compared to the total number of products manufactured over a certain period of time. 

First Pass Yield, Throughput yield, and Rolled throughput yield

First pass yield is also referred to as throughput yield. These terms are used interchangeably to determine the percentage of units or parts produced correctly on the first try. 

Rolled throughput yield (RTY) takes FPY a step further and helps manufacturers determine the efficiency of their production processes – i.e., how many defect-free parts can be produced each hour with the available machines, labor, and parts. 

Each of these metrics play a role in the continuous improvement of a manufacturing plant. They help managers determine where inefficiencies lie in order to make the proper changes to maximize output and, therefore, revenue. 

First Pass Yield calculation

The first pass yield formula is a simple calculation. Manufacturers take the number of defect-free units produced to specification over a certain period of time, divide that by the total number of units produced in that same period of time, and then multiply that number by 100 to get a percentage. 

(# of defect-free units produced / Total # of units produced) x 100 = FPY percentage

Let’s look at an example. 

A manufacturing company produces 250 units of a certain product per day. However, 50 of those units contained defects or other quality issues, so the total number of defect-free units was 200. In this case, the FPY would be 80%. 

(200 / 250) x 100 = 80%

Generally speaking, a good FPY goal for most companies is at least 90%. So, if a company is producing 250 units a day, ideally at least 225 of those units should be sellable to attain a good FPY. The plant in our example may want to evaluate their process to reduce the number of defects and improve their output.

Why measure First Pass Yield

When collecting FPY, manufacturers gain a plethora of insights into their current production processes. Understanding and properly utilizing FPY tells a company how much waste they have (i.e. unusable units produced) and can also provide deeper insights into improving their manufacturing processes. 

For example, if a company is continuously hitting a low FPY, that’s a good indicator that there’s an underlying problem to solve. The reasons behind a low FPY can range from a lack of personnel or training to poor quality materials to equipment failure, to name a few. 

Because FPY can help root out deeper issues, tracking this metric and improving it can also result in a variety of benefits: 

  • Reduce waste – When a company improves FPY, it reduces waste by producing fewer defective parts or poor-quality materials. 
  • Utilizing resources more effectively – Manufacturers can put their resources to better use by using FPY to help produce more defect-free items that can be sold. When resources go towards producing better quality units, it improves the bottom line. 
  • Hit better delivery times – With fewer defective products, manufacturing companies can meet and improve delivery times because it takes less time to produce the number of good units for an order.
  • Price more competitively – When manufacturers don’t have to account for as many defective or “throwaway” units in their profit margins, they can offer more competitive pricing. 
  • Better customer satisfaction – Better delivery time, higher quality units, and competitive pricing leads to greater customers satisfaction, referrals, and brand reputation. 

How to improve First Pass Yield

With the many benefits that come along with improving FPY, it is helpful to understand the best ways to improve it. This is especially helpful when it’s difficult to pin down the root cause of a low FPY. 

Optimize processes

Thoroughly reviewing production processes can help manufacturers identify and improve a number of issues that could cause the low output of good parts. It can also open the door for manufacturing teams to come up with better processes, if needed, to improve the quality of their products. 

When going through this exercise, it’s important to make updates to SOPs to ensure the entire team is on the same page moving forward. This will help avoid rework and improve FPY in the long run. 

Gather accurate data in real-time

Manufacturers should have specific goals for quality, including high FPY. Consistent and quality data helps manufacturers track their performance over time and measure the impact of procedure changes. It also helps organizations remain aware of their progress toward goals related to production and output.

Also, by collecting data in real-time, companies can be more responsive and efficient in making the improvements they need. 

Monitor and maintain equipment performance

Equipment maintenance is an essential aspect of producing quality units and improving FPY. Manufacturing companies should have thoughtful and strategic maintenance plans in place – such as preventive maintenance – to monitor equipment performance and execute maintenance tasks as needed. 

Reducing the possibility of equipment failure contributes to better outcomes, allowing companies to take advantage of the numerous benefits of an improved FPY. 

Use high-quality materials

A product is only as good as the materials used to manufacture it. Lower-quality materials have a lower likelihood of holding up to the manufacturing process, resulting in defective units. Work with trusted suppliers that are known for their material quality standards, ensuring a top-tier product that you’re proud to hand off to a customer. 

Common challenges in achieving high FPY

Manufacturing excellence faces several hurdles that can impact First Pass Yield (FPY): 

  • Variations in raw materials: One challenge lies in the varying quality of raw materials. If the input materials aren’t consistent, it leads to unpredictable product quality.
  • Inadequate training: Insufficiently trained personnel may mishandle equipment or misinterpret processes, increasing the potential for errors.
  • Equipment malfunctions: Machinery breakdowns disrupt the smooth flow of production, causing delays and often resulting in defective products. 
  • Process inconsistencies: This represents a broader concern, encompassing deviations from established procedures. These inconsistencies can arise from human error, equipment wear, or inadequate process controls, all negatively affecting FPY.

Overcoming these challenges demands practical solutions. Implementing rigorous quality control measures for raw materials, enhancing training programs, investing in preventive maintenance to minimize equipment breakdowns, and instituting robust process monitoring and improvement mechanisms are crucial steps. 

These challenges can make or break efficient production, but they are all within the control of manufacturing operations and a consistent quality assurance program. By proactively addressing these issues, manufacturers pave the way for a more streamlined and efficient production process, ultimately boosting their FPY.

More relevant manufacturing metrics

First pass yield is one of many beneficial manufacturing key performance indicators (KPIs) companies should utilize to track the productivity of their operations. Here are a couple of others to consider: 

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

OEE is a maintenance metric that assesses the productivity of assets and systems by considering availability, performance, and production quality. It is an essential part of lean manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance.

Total Effective Equipment Performance (TEEP)

TEEP measures manufacturing productivity by considering all available productive time and gives insights into a plant’s total available production capacity. 

Preventive Maintenance Compliance (PMC)

PMC allows manufacturers to track the effectiveness of preventive maintenance strategies that play a critical role in the daily plant operations. 

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How does maintenance affect FPY

When it comes down to it, maintenance is an essential aspect of improving operational efficiencies across all industries in manufacturing. Without a good maintenance strategy, achieving a good FPY is difficult. Maintenance activities keep equipment running, and running efficiently, laying the groundwork for optimal production. 

A more proactive maintenance plan provides numerous benefits that contribute to better FPY, including: 

  • Improved equipment lifespan
  • Improved workflows
  • Better compliance and safety
  • Reduced costs
  • Less downtime

Improving operations across the board will improve FPY. So take the time to put proactive maintenance processes into place. 

Need help getting started? Limble CMMS provides a digital platform that makes implementing a maintenance strategy a breeze. 

Learn how Limble CMMS saved a manufacturing company $1 million per year by helping them implement a digital maintenance system.


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